All stock units are Aisan-manufactured dual-throat single-choke downdraft-type carburettors.
All throat sizes are 27/27 mm. 3K and 4K venturi diameters are:
- 21/24 mm for single carb
- 20/22 mm for twincarb motors (3K-B, 3K-D).
Jet sizes are:
- 0.99/1.75 mm for single carbs
- 0.84/1.40 mm for twincarbs.
Throttle is operated via accelerator cable with the progressive secondary throat operating on a mechanical linkage, although there is a weighted vaccuum-style "flapper" butterfly in the secondary throat as well. These carbs flow around 150CFM.
Some carbs have an ignition-operated solenoid switch to prevent run-on (Dieselling), I suspect that this came in around 1975 (with the KE30), however some later model cars have been released from the factory with no solenoid? I have found a paragraph in a Toyota workshop manual that suggests this is part of the -C motor emissions system.
These original carbs are quite poor, having very little mixture adjustment, and it would seem they have poor fuel atomization qualities too (whoever heard of a standard carb running rich on a worked 4K?). There's isn't really much you can do as far as modification is concerned. An open-side design air filter, or Ram-Flo, will help throttle response tremendously compared to the stock snorkel-type filter housing. It has been suggested that jamming the secondary throat "flapper" butterfly open (put a spring on the weight arm or something) could help, but just seems to reduce throttle response at low RPM and make the car more noisy up high, maybe with some slight midrange improvement in power.
One of the easiest mods for these cars is to change the carby!
A Weber 32/36 DGV is the most common aftermarket downdraft around. Usually you'll need to jet down a carburettor like this, unless someone has already done the work for you, or you have a fairly modified engine. For a 3K/4K, start at around:
- 130 mains
- 170 air jets
- 50 idle
and take it from there.
Basic tuning tips: If the car "stumbles" forward but revs eventually climb, you're running too rich. If the car just cuts and dies, you're running too lean.
Other carbs suitable for these motors include:
- Weber 32/26 DFV (aka Holley 5200)
- Holley 180
- Weber 32/34 DMTT
- Dellorto DHLA40 or Weber DCOE40 in single or twin configuration
- Dellorto DHLA45 or Weber DCOE45 in single configuration.
One of the best carbs I think you can find for one of these is a Weber 28/36 DCD from a Mk1 GT Ford Cortina. You probably wouldn't want to go much bigger than that. I also have a Nikki 28/32 off a Mazda of some kind that I'd like to try out.
Fitting aftermarket carburettors
If your non-standard carb has a fuel return line, block it, or T it back into the fuel line before the fuel pump. If you are looking for somewhere to flow the crankcase ventilation tubes, it is "suggested" you obtain a charcol canister and flow the hoses into these to be emissions legal. You could also put the crankcase vents back into the air cleaner as per original, but I don't think the carby is a very good place for engine oil. I suggest you make yourself a catch can, or get a rocker cover breather.
If you end up with a carb that has a different stud pattern, making a mounting plate and cutting gaskets isn't hard, so you could theoretically fit any carb onto the manifold, as long as you taper the throats (or expand the original manifold) to create smooth flow. The adapter plate on my Weber is about 15mm thick.
Other sources of bolt-on carburettors (ie: same stud pattern) for these cars include:
- Celica motors (18R, 2T, 3T) which are still Aisan carbs.
- Datsun L motors, apparently these Hitachi carbs are just as crap as Aisans.
- Mazda Capella and other cars with Mazda piston motors (1300, 626, etc).
- Holden Gemini Nikki carbs
I have heard mixed reports of these Nikki carbs, some people say they are the bee's knees, some people would rather bolt on a DGV. I have managed to score one, one day I'll kit it and let you know.
New manifolds can be purchased to adapt sidedraft carbs to a K motor, Available from such places as Repco (Made by Redline and Lynx). Also you can use a Redline linkage kit which can be purchased new as well. The bolt patterns are the same for Weber/Dellorto/Solex side-draft carbs. A new manifold like my Redline one will have to be machined to fit with the extractors. Make sure you have extractors before fitting twincarbs or you will get inlet reversion. (See also - http://www.rollaclub.com/board/index.php?showtopic=10634&hl= Twin Carb Linkage Discussion On Forum)
LynxCorp (Australia) Manufacture a bolt-on SU Manifold for the K series engines.
This allows 2 x SU style carbs to be bolted onto your K engine.
Part number is M-117
RRP is about AU$220.00
Previous, more detailed discussion on the messageboard can be found here
Apparently lynx no longer manufacturers these manifolds and has run out of stock making them a hot item when for sale.
The general consensus is that 1.5" SUs are more preferable to the 1.75 on lower capacity K motors. More information here: http://www.rollaclub.com/board/index.php?showtopic=15069
Dellorto / Mikuni Solex / Weber Sidedraft
Redline Manufacture a bolt-on manifold for the K series engines.
There are 2 different versions to suit either a single or dual carbs.
Part number for single carb manifold is 12-3112
Part number for dual carb manifold is 12-3062
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carburettor (Wikipedia entry for 'Carburettor').
Article by Superjamie / Medicine_Man
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