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Banjo last won the day on March 21

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  1. My thoughts also ! Don't know what it is in our makeup, that drives us, to hold onto olde things & keep them going. Certainly not a trait with the current generation of youth, that change their mobile phones, like they change their underpants. It's called "advertising ! There are some wonderful vids on the net, of these groups of olde guys, in the UK, that spend years rebuilding olde steam tractors, after which, they take them to group meets, where they fire them up, & drive them around in circles. It's called "happiness". https://youtu.be/x8IMaD9JE2s If that has wet your appetite, just have a look at this, & the numbers of people who go to this show, to see all things "olde" ; & yes, there are some cars also. https://youtu.be/SIHp9Vvvb4s Cheers Banjo
  2. I watched the "blade skin & slide rail" repair, from end to end last night, & it is truly amazing, to watch, despite many bits been intentionally sped up, in places. Thank You for posting. Cheers Banjo
  3. Haven't actually tried it as yet. Some modern ECUs have an input for a knock sensor, & automatically lower the advance a little until the "knocking" is no longer detected. It allows you to get fairly "aggressive, with the advance table, while "learning" the engines characteristics, without running the risk, of doing any damage. I need to make up a little 6kHz filter, so I can see it on the oscilloscope. Cheers Banjo
  4. So first step on a wet Saturday; yesterday in "the shed", was to transpose the "camshaft sprocket cover", onto the 5k engine. I've swapped back over to the original 5K crankshaft pulley, as it was designed to minimise harmonic imbalance in the crankshaft itself (I believe) This will require a longer fan belt, but that is not an issue. The main concern, & requirement, for sensing the imbedded magnets, on the outer rim of the trigger wheel, is "concentricity"; so the gap between the the outer edge of the aluminium disk, & the tip of the Haltech Hall Effect sensor, is very uniform. The use of very strong rare earth magnets, with a rating of N45 or greater, should provide greater tolerance, or slight run-out of the disk. You can take out the Hall Effect sensor, & stand above & look down the hole, in the mounting bracket; & see how well the edge (width) of the aluminium disk, is centred under the hole. I have place several large washers, directly behind the aluminium disk, to space it slightly away from the edge of the crankshaft pulley. These washers, also allow the disk, to be moved backwards, or forward, to accommodate the thickness of the disk. I'm currently using a 6mm thick disk, but the latest disk, I have just aquired is 8mm thick; & I've now just learned, of where I can obtain a 10mm thick one, if I need it, to be able the drill holes in the edge of the disk, to accommodate a larger diameter rod rare earth magnet. The next part of the exercise, is to create a wide camshaft position pulse, that can be logic "AND"ed, with the single North pole single on the crankshaft disk, to provide a single pulse per two (2) revolutions, of the crankshaft, for sequential ignition & inject operation. I have three (3) options, in this regard. (a) Use the existing cam position sensor I have created using a a "gutted", olde Denso distributor body, with dissy cap removed, & replaced by a "jam jar lid". The pulse will simply have to be larger in width, than the single "north" pole pulse from the crankshaft. (b) Use the Hall Effect sensor, I have fitted to the camshaft cover, detecting a rare earth magnet attached to the camshaft sprocket. This has one advantage that, both crank & cam Hall effect sensors, would be mounted on the same camshaft sprocket cover, & would look simple, neat, & very purposeful. Now the camshaft one, that is already been in place for a couple of years, has not given an "ounce of trouble". However, if it real-life, you had to get access to the magnet assembly; on the camshaft sprocket; it would be a very difficult job, to remove the camshaft sprocket cover, with the engine, in the engine bay. (3) I've come across a reference on the net recently, of someone using the camshaft lobe tip, for driving the mechanical fuel pump, to trigger a Hall Effect device. I daresay, it would work alright, even though the lobe in the K series engines, doesn't directly point towards the middle of the mounting point opening, on the side of the block. However, & don't particularly fancy the Hall Effect sensor, operating reliably, in that very hot environment, being constantly "splashed", with hot oil. I think, with those restrictions, the gutted dissy shell that I have already made, will be the way I go initially. Unlike the other two alternatives, "a" & "b", there is no issue with access, or being in a constant hot & oily environment. All i have to do, is maybe install a rare earth magnet, with a wider face, so the the pulse width of the cam position sensor overlaps the single "single north pole" crankshaft pulse. Anyway, I currently will have a knock sensor attached to the unused mechanical fuel pump mounting point, so that option is out So that's the objective for today; & then it will be time to pull the camshaft sprocket cover off, & build an "all aluminium" mounting block, for the primary, Haltech dual Hall effect sensor. Cheers Banjo
  5. Well, my new "rare earth' magnets haven't arrived as yet, but I have made a 'logic interface", for the Hall Effect sensor, to "mix" the pulses from the two (2) Hall Effect sensors, so I get the exact 36 continuous pulses per revolution, without any missing teeth, & a pulse, once per crank revolution, which is all that is needed for wasted spark operation. However, if we "AND" the camshaft pulse & the single north pole pulse on the aluminum disk, the end result is a single pulse once per 2 revolutions, which will facilitate/allow, full sequential ECU operation. It looks so clean & simple, in practice; as there is only one (1) Hall Effect Sensor housing; but inside it actually has two (2) Hall Effect sensors, side by side, with separate outputs. One output reacts to the "35" off "South" poles, & the other to the "1" "North" pole. Not a "missing tooth"/magnet in sight, which should reduce the overhead of code, that is constantly in play; trying to detect the missing tooth. I've had it working on the bench all weekend, & the oscilloscopes traces indicate it is working perfectly. The single camshaft pulse, per camshaft revolution, will be made slightly wider that the single crankshaft pulse that indicates where the crankshaft is in it's rotation. That single pulse signal, is in perfect synchronisation with the primary 36 pulse train, as you can see in the trace below. Below is a full rotation of the crankshaft, showing the single pulse per revolution, with no missing teeth / magnets; in the main pulse train. The trace indicates there are just 18 pulses per revolution (not 36 off), as the small variable speed electric motor on my bench; used for this testing, is using a smaller 150mm disk, with 18 off pulses per revolution. Many of the missing tooth trigger wheels, have more than one missing tooth, & sometimes in two or three difference places. This is so the "synchronisation", can be achieved in less than 2 revolutions, of the crankshaft. This is primarily used when cranking the engine, to start it; to allow ignition firing, within the first revolutions of the crankshaft. If you want or need to delve into why there are so many different trigger wheel "missing teeth" variants; & you've got an hour to spare, then this webinar on utube, with Josh Stewart, is a good information source. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iv4xvBVqQ6g I will position the aluminium trigger disk on the crankshaft, so the the single synch pulse (north pole) occurs 90 degrees before TDC No: 1 cylinder. Hopefully, the Dual Wheel decoder, in the Speeduino ECU, will handle this arrangement perfectly. If starting the engine, becomes a serious issue, I will look at other ways to possibly synchronise the ECU with crankshaft actual position, within half a revolution, which is the best possibility, that is attainable. P.S. The three (3) off MOC5007 IC "opto couplers" are optional; but I have used them to optically isolate the Hall Effect sensors & their 12V supply, from the 5Vdc & logic circuitry, so that any noise in the 12 volt system, is minimised. I've used this arrangement for some time, with excellent results. I could also have just carried out any logic required, for generating the two vital output pulses for the ECU, with a simple little programable microprocessor; but the logic was so simple, that it seemed much simpler, to just utilise, two (2) cheap fixed logic gate chips. Cheers Banjo
  6. Hi Jose ! Welcome aboard. Where are you located ? In Australia, there are a number of after-market fuel guage sender units available here, on ebay; primarily for the KE70. Not sure whether the sender unit, for the KE70 is the same as that for the KE55, although they were both built in the 1979-80 era. Altezzaclub, might be able to clear that question up ? Frankly, they are a pain in the butt, as sometimes, when the guage is not working; replacing the sender unit, does not fix the problem. The guage does not work off 12 volts, like most things in the car. There is a small regulator, behind the dash instruments, that produces a 8V, or 9V voltage, to power the fuel guage, so it's reading does not jump up & down, with the battery voltage, which is always varying. This regulator, sometimes burns out, & needs to be replaced. Happened to me, & you'll probably find a thread on this form, regarding that, if you search. https://www.rollaclub.com/board/topic/73224-that-pesky-little-guage-voltage-regulator/#comment-708505 Cheers Banjo
  7. I don't know what it is, that has me, so fascinated with the concept of trigger wheels, & improving the accuracy of timing of engine fuel injection, & spark timing. I'm fascinated, that in these days of EV, & the cries of the end of ICE engines; by the continued development of the Free Valve engine, in Sweden; where the timing of each valve can be individually timed. https://www.freevalve.com/about-us/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OZWeNPi2XkE https://www.freevalve.com/freevalve-technology/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XV4NavUIznc However, the current ICE engines, & our olde K Series, have a mechanical camshaft, that dictates exactly when the valves open & shut, irrespective of whether the engine is idling; or running at 5000 rpm. What we do have; is the ability to change the point in time, when the spark plug fires, & the compressed air & fuel mixture "explodes", & forces the piston back down. However, that ability to advance or retard the spark event, is controlled by those bob weights & tiny little springs, that lie "hidden" under the plate in our Bosch & Denso distributors. As well as that, the points in the distributor, that determine the point at which the spark plug fires, are not directly driven by the the crankshaft. In between the crankshaft, & the distributor, are two sprockets; a camshaft chain; & a set of helical gears between the distributor & the camshaft; all which develop slop, & therefore timing errors; particularly, when our 5K engines are 20-50 years olde ! It is therefore, a no brainer, to be able to time the ignition triggering directly off the crankshaft, where all that slop in camshaft & timing chain cogs, have absolutely no effect, at all. I have a large timing disc, on the flywheel of my 5K test engine, with a strobe light. When the engine is running with the 5K dissy, you can actually see the trigger point moving about back & forth. When the engine is controlled by an ECU, with a crankshaft fed trigger signal, the strobe on the timing disk is "rock solid", & steady. When I first started playing with this years ago, my early experiments involved using the starter motor teeth, on the flywheel; as a indication of where the engine was in it's cycle. Unfortunately, the number of teeth around the flywheel peripheral, are all; not equally divisible by 360 degrees. The idea of fitting a separate large trigger wheel, to the opposite side of the flywheel to the clutch, is still one, I might revisit, as trigger wheels on the crankshaft pulley, are prone to damage in rally cars, & therefore avoided by many, in that sport. So accuracy is everything, & you can have the most sophisticated & expensive ECU, but if the trigger signal feeding the ECU, is not stable or accurate, then the adage "rubbish in; rubbish out", comes to mind. I personally don't favour the missing tooth concept, for a trigger disk. My first sojourn into this area, used a missing tooth trigger wheel. The problem is that the ECU sees the trailing edge of the tooth, before the gap, or missing tooth. From the frequency of the pulse chain, to that point, the ECU expects the next pulse to arrive at a certain duration, after the last pulse. It does this for every pulse presumably. If the pulse is not forthcoming, the ECU assumes that this is the missing tooth. The problem with this assumption; is that a missed pulse, could be resulting from an excessive air gap; or squaring of a VR signal, or a VR signal, at low rpm; & will be interpreted by the ECU as the missing tooth. The engine, then loses its firing / injection synch. My assertion, from experience; says that the pulse from a Hall Effect sensor, & imbedded magnet, is a much more reliable scenario, in missing tooth control arrangements. However, wouldn't it be better, if it was possible to get the same result as a missing tooth system, that worked well, . . . . . without having a missing tooth at all. I have been able to achieve this, because of the Haltech Hall Effect sensor I have, that actually has two Hall Effect sensors; with two outputs, in the same housing. One sensor provides an output to "south pole" magnets faces, whilst the other sensor provides an output to "north pole" faces. I fitted 35 magnets to my 36 "tooth" aluminium wheel, with the south poles facing the Hall effect sensor. In the 36th hole I fitted the same magnet around the other way, with the north pole facing out. So once per revolution of the crankshaft, I achieve this sync pulse, from the "north pole" sensor, without a need for the computations required by the ECU, to detect a missing tooth. However, I hear you say; that the signal from the south pole sensor still has a missing signal/tooth; because it does not produce an output when the single north pole passes the sensor. True; but the output of the south & north pole dual sensors, provide an identical type of output. If we logically "OR" these two sensor outputs in an "OR or NOR" logic gate, we achieve a continuous stream of pulses, with no missing tooth at all. However, the north pole sensor, still provides a single pulse , for synchronisation, as to exactly where the crankshaft is in it's revolution, without the need to constantly keep looking for a missing tooth. Once I have this new aluminium trigger disk running, I'll post the CRO waveforms, & the description above will be clear to see. The other consideration, is whether there are any existing ECU decoders, that would cater for the arrangement, I am proposing. If not, the the exercise, becomes very analytical, but not very practical. I've been a great advocate of the Speeduino, EC, designed by Josh Stewart, in Ballarat Vic. In the decoders supplied standard with Speeduino firmware, is a decoder called a 'Dual Wheel" decoder. https://wiki.speeduino.com/en/decoders/Dual_Wheel It is described as follows . . . This decoder suits my trigger wheel design & outputs perfectly, if you are using a batch firing ignition/injection arrangement. However, it is easy to provide sequential ignition & injection operation, by "ANDing" the single pulse per crankshaft revolution, with an "overlapping pulse", from the camshaft positional sensor. It that way, we get a single pulse every 2 revolutions of the crankshaft, which allows "sequential" operation, of the ECU. As soon as I get this new aluminium trigger disk built, I will try this out, as at present, I can not think of anything, that will prevent this from working. In theory, you could actually lose altogether, the camshaft pulse per 2 off crankshaft revolutions; & simply flick a switch & run the engine in a "batch" mode. Cheers Banjo
  8. As well as bolting the aluminium disk to the "ground flat" front of the cover, I also glued it with Araldite, so there was no possiblity of any oil leaks. This is how it turned out. Next step, was to fit it all to an olde K series block, on an engine stand, in my garage; & see how the trigger wheel looked & physically sat. Here is a closer view of the disk & Haltech Hall Effect sensor, mounted to a temporary bracket I made, to ensure the Hall Effect sensor face, lines up perfectly with the centre of the outer edge of the 200mm aluminium disk. It is also important, that the extended line of the Hall Effect sensor body length, passes through the center point of the disk, which it clearly does, in this case. My previous experiments, were carried out with a 150mm dia. aluminium disk, but I chose a 200mm dia. disk this time; so that there is room to double the number of magnets to 72 off, (currently 36), so that greater resolution of engine RPM, & timing can be achieved, if required. The other consideration, is that depending on the sensitivity of the Hall Effect sensor, & the strength of the magnets, it may not be able to achieve a nice clearly defined "off" period, or gap, between pulses. Ideally, the mark/space, or on/off ratio of the on & off periods of time, should be about 50:50. Only, whilst running it, & looking at the CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope) waveform, will determine that. Ultimately, I will make the bracket, supporting the Hall Effect sensor, out of a block of aluminium, with a big hole through it for the sensor. The least amount of steel close to the sensing face of the Hall Effect sensor, will reduce the possibility of magnetic field lines from the magnets, being deflected or attracted elsewhere. So next step, is to fit it to the 5K engine, & do some serious testing. Cheers Banjo
  9. My special rare earth magnets should arrive today. In the meantime, I've finished grinding down the outer face of the camshaft sprocket cover, & fitted the 120mm dia. aluminium disk, to provide a nice flat, firm, surface; to mount the Hall Effect sensor mounting bracket. It worked out well. Next process, will be to mount it to the front of the engine, then fit crankshaft pulley & trigger wheel, & design & build a little mount for the Hall Effect sensor. I've purchased a new crankshaft oil seal for the cover, & was pleased to find, they are still readily available. It turns out, the front crankshaft oil seal, on the 5K engine, was used on a variety of Toyota smaller engines; hence they are still in good supply. 3K, 4K, 5K, 7K, 2R, 3R, 5R, 2T, 3T, 4TG & 12R Toyota engines, all use this same seal. I'll, not fit the seal, until the Hall Effect sensor bracket is designed, built, & fitted, as I'm sure the cover will be on & off numerous times, during that process. I've permanently removed the four (4) sump connecting threaded studs at bottom of this cover, & replaced them with bolts; so that the aluminium cover can be removed & replaced without having to lower the sump each time. It's a mod I've done to any K Series engine, I've worked on. When finished, a few coats of a nice gloss enamel, will have it looking like the picture I discovered on the web, that started this little side project; & which I "coverted" so much (greatly desired or envied); I simply built my own. Cheers Banjo
  10. Whilst I wait for my high strength rare earth magnets to arrive, in the next few days, & I now have a nice clean 200mm dia. aluminium disk, with a very true edge, where the magnets, will be inserted; so it's time to mark & drill the disk out, around the edge, to insert the magnets. Now I could sit down with a protractor & fine black felt pen, & finish up with an accumulative error, as I worked around the 360 degree disk. However, after searching the web, I found a site where you can draw a 360 degree disc, with markings; & then print out. It allows you to stipulate the diameter of the disc, & the size of the centre hole. You can produce all sorts of customised things, from their base templates. You can then save it as a pdf, & print it out, 1:1. I then cut it out, & it fitted perfectly to the disc, & was easily centred, as the centre hole lined up perfectly. I then stuck it to the aluminium disk, with some thin double sided tape, & here is the result. It is then a simple matter of working around the edge of the disk, & marking the edge with a fine black felt pen, so I can centre pop each point, so that accurate drilling can be carried out. As my magnet trigger wheel, will have 36 magnets, it was really easy, as 360 degrees, is obviously equally divisible, by 36. Next step will be to stand the disk up vertically, in the drill stand, so that the holes are at right angles, to the outside edge, & that the holes length heads towards the centre point of the disk. That will result in the end of the magnet, being perfectly in parallel, with the face of the Hall Effect device. I will start it off with a small "starter" hole, & then increase the holes' diameters, until there is an interference fit, so the magnets can be pressed into the disk. I'll wait until the little N45 "rod" rare earth magnets arrive, so I can measure their diameter accurately, with my micrometer, to choose the final drill hole size, before insertion. So far, so good ! Cheers Banjo
  11. Most tachos, work by connecting the pulse train input wire for the tacho, to the negative terminal of the coil, which was traditionally, in a CB dissy; simply connected to the points. You could try simply connecting it to the negative terminal of your coil. If that doesn't work, then try the IGt signal. That is a nice square wave, & has some dwell information in there, as a result of the width of the pulse, which will not make any difference to the tacho reading, as it is only interested in the frequency, of the pulse train.. I notice that the ignitor in the diagram above, does have a "TAC" output, but as there is no wire colours depicted, that may make it difficult to identify, unless there are some markings on the ignitor itself. If you had access to a CRO, or a multimeter, that measures frequency, then you could probe around, until you found a signal that changes frequency with RPM. Unfortunately, I've never come across one of these Toyota ignition systems in my travels, so don't have any personal experience. Strangely, when I built the ignition system in my KE30 Corolla, years ago, I instigated a similar system, where under starting conditions, the coil is sent a signal at base ignition timing, of 10-12 degrees BTDC. Once the engine is running, the ignition system, then switches over to the electronic advance system. It does have the advantage, that the engine starts instantly always; & if your ignition system ECU & ignitor fail altogether, you can flick a switch, & get on home, in "limp mode", with just the base 10-12 degree advance. Somewhere on this forum, I described this system, years ago. I'll see if I can find it. Here it is . . . . . . Cheers Banjo
  12. Man ! Is that complicated. That was leading edge technology, back 30-40 years ago. However, the risk, with getting this system going; is that if & when some component in the ignition system, fails in the future; there will be a very high likelihood, of not being able to source the spare part at all, to make it work again. I also love getting olde things working again; however, there is a limit. There are plenty of trigger modules etc, that will fit inside existing dissy's, such that it appears to be "olde school", but will perform much better. Now take this guy ! I watched this video recently, & it was painful, to watch His efforts. However, He got there; & that was probably all He wanted. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=arxOB5u9kaE Then there was this one, which many of you have watched. 10 million plus views on utube, but I loved reading the comments left by viewers ! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1RX_AJRbYzc Cheers Banjo
  13. I haven't completed the mods to the camshaft sprocket cover as yet, but I have sited the aluminium disk, I purchased (6mm x 120mm), where it will be located; & it looks almost, as if it was designed for this application. However, that's a few more precious hours, to finish that off, & then remove, the radiator, to get at the front of the "test engine", to remove & replace the camshaft sprocket cover, without removing the sump. What I really need to do now, is test the concept, of a 200mm aluminium disk, with magnets facing out along the edge, rather than out the side. So back to the A/C compressor bracket mounting points on the block, & a piece of bar, & it lines up perfectly; as the centre of the crankshaft, is in line with the bottom edge of the block, which is approximately where the compressor bracket mounting holes are. Ultimately, that Hall effect sensor, will be mounted on the cover pointing down to the edge of the disk, approximately 90 deg. from where it is in the picture below. So before I fitted any magnets, to the "rim", of the aluminium disk; I want to ensure the disk was perfectly centred, & there was no run out. The blank disks come as just that; cut with a laser, & with no centre hole. No real issue finding the centre of the blank disc. Just 2 or 3 lines across the disk, towards the edge. Measure the length of each, & find the mid point of each line. With a right angle set-square, draw a line at right angles , at the mid-point. These 2 or 3 lines should intersect at the centre point, of the circular disk. Then carefully drill at hole at the midpoint, & carefully enlarge, until you can get a reamer in there & gently remove only enough metal, until the crankshaft centre bolt, is a nice tightish fit, so there is no lateral movement in the plate, due to the hole being bigger, than the unthreaded section of the crankshaft pulley, retaining bolt. I went through this exercise, & finished up, with a run-out of the edge of the aluminium disk, of less than 0.5mm. I measured this run out, with a little metal "L" bracket, clamped so that you could turn the crankshaft, & measure the gap. Normally, you would true the disk up in a lathe. However, I don't have a lathe, but the engine to which the disk is fitted, runs. At idle; just hold a very fine file on the little shown silver bracket depicted; & because the aluminium is soft, & easy to work with; in just a few minutes, you have a perfectly concentric outer edge on the disk. It turns out the "diametric" round rare earth magnets, are made in limited sizes, & are very expensive; & I can't find the exact size I need, available in Australia. So initially, I'm going to press small "rod" magnets into 36 holes drilled evenly around the edge of the disk. The 200mm blank aluminium disk I purchased was not available in 10mm thickness; so I had to settle for an 6mm thick one. that should allow me, to drill & press in a 4mm dia. rare earth magnet. I'll practice, of a piece of scrap 6mm thick aluminium, before I go drilling the disk, around the periferal edge. Here is a pic, taken of the 200mm aluminium trigger disc, from the opposite side of the engine. Now there is no water pump, & no water pump pulley, or fan blades, it certainly will "unclutter the front of the engine, directly behind the radiator. I've since found an a 200mm blank aluminium disc on Amazon, that is 8mm thick, so have ordered one; but it's coming from overseas, so will probably take a couple of weeks. So next post, I'll either be elated, that it is working, as intended; or back to the drawing board. If it works, then the next job, will be building a Hall Sensor mount on the 120mm flat disk, on the camshaft sprocket cover, depicted in the first pic, in this post. Cheers Banjo
  14. Banjo


    Looks like it Pete ! If you start a new topic, it asks you to select a Forum, from the pull down list, & Marketplace"; is not in the pull-down listings. Cheers Banjo
  15. It is the contacts that fail, as the contacts approach each other; & the voltage is high; it then jumps across the gap; before the contacts actually mate. The elements will be designed for a 220V or 240V ac voltage. The supply voltage is an AC sinusoidal waveform. 240Vac, is the average of the sinusoidal waveform; not the maximum. The peak voltage is 1.414 times 240Vac., or 339Vac peak. Now you see the problem, which is timing. If the contacts coming together, coincides with the peak of the hi voltage waveform; "Bang". If you think back to pre-LED lights in our houses, when we had filament bulbs; you will remember, that bulbs "popped"; often in Winter; just as you were turning them on. Ever remember being in a dark room in Winter, & turning a light switch on; only to see a flash behind the light switch plate ? Filament was cold, with low resistance, & therefore drew more current. Actual point in time, at which the contacts closed, was completely arbitary. The secret; is to switch the light on, at the zero crossing point, of the 240Vac sinusoidal waveform, where the waveform changes from being negative, to positive (effectively zero volts). I have made it a habit of using high voltage SSRs (Solid State Relays) with zero crossing switching built in, to switch large loads that cause issues, for conventional mechanical switches. Typical Solid State Replay, with LED to indicate is has been "turned on", by 4-32Vdc input voltage. So irrespective of what time you "flick the switch", to power the solid state switch (SSR); the SSR, waits until the next zero crossing of the high voltage waveform, before it switches on. As a full 50Hz mains cycle is 20milliseconds, then the longest you would ever have to wait for the light to come on, would be 10 milliseconds. You would not be able to detect this delay. I have a whole house, built 20 years ago, where the light switches only switch 12V dc, & that 12V dc, turns on a solid state switch, which turns on the bulb. Worked really well for 20 years, & never had to replace a bulb ever. Then along came "hi efficiency" LED light bulbs, & another problem appeared. The highly efficent LED lights, sometimes glow in the dark, as they are so efficient, that the minute leakage current, through the solid state switch "snubber", is enough to cause some LED lights to "glow". Oh technology ! ! ! https://forums.whirlpool.net.au/archive/1807796 P.S. I was in NSW recently, in a Bunnings store, & You could not find a filament bulb on the shelf. Starting to go that way in Qld. also. Soon, filament bulbs will be a thing of the past, & you'll only see them in museums. Cheers Banjo
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